Top 50 Citations

Results of Deploying an Emotional Intelligence Program in K-12 Schools

Principals are more ready than ever to bring SEL to their schools.

1. “Effects on an EI Program on the EI of Children”: 2007

A 12-week study of 120 preschool-aged children, whose EI was seen to increase due to said program.

2.“Educator’s Guide to Emotional Intelligence” (2006) by Maurice J. Elias, Harriet Arnold; includes references and benefits of EI education

A handbook for teachers on how EL works and how it can help their students. This handbook also has recommendations for integrating EL into the classroom.

3.“Example of Canadian EI Program: Roots of Empathy”

The research page for the Roots of Empathy project: An EL program in Canada that has been researched and tested since 2000.

4.“EI in the K-12 Curriculum and its Relationship to American Workplace Needs” (2007)

5.”EI and Social/Academic Adaptation to School” 2006, Spain

6. Promoting Positive Youth Development Through School‐Based Social and Emotional Learning Interventions: A Meta‐Analysis of Follow‐Up Effects

“This meta‐analysis reviewed 82 school‐based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions involving 97,406 kindergender to high school students (Mage = 11.09 years; mean percent low socioeconomic status = 41.1; mean percent students of color = 45.9). Thirty‐eight interventions took place outside the United States. Follow‐up outcomes (collected 6 months to 18 years postintervention) demonstrate SEL’s enhancement of positive youth development. The participants of the analysis fared significantly better than controls in social‐emotional skills, attitudes, and indicators of well‐being. The benefits were similar regardless of students’ race, socioeconomic background, or school location. Postintervention social‐emotional skill development was the strongest predictor of well‐being at follow‐up. Infrequently assessed, but notable outcomes (e.g., graduation and safe sexual behaviors), illustrate SEL’s improvement of critical aspects of students’ developmental trajectories.”

7.“How to Implement SEL at Your School: 7 Activities”

8.“School-Based Reduction of Depression: Mindfulness Program” (2014)

.A study was conducted on 408 students, ranging from age 13-20, from 5 different schools. Six classes were enrolled in a mindfulness program while six classes were enrolled in a control condition. At a six month follow-up, hierarchical linear modeling showed that the students enrolled in the mindfulness program exhibited “significantly greater reductions (and greater clinically significant change)” in depression when compared with the control group.

9.“EI and Social Skills in Science Classes” (2001)

According to research conducted by Western Illinois University and published in the Journal of Elementary Science Education, the problems facing students are their lack of emotional intelligence and social skills training necessary in order to successfully cooperate with others. The solution involves implementing EI programs and social skills instruction for students.

10. Academic Performance Increases 11% in K-12 from Emotional Intelligence Education “Emotional Intelligence is Important, Too” (2016)

Emotional intelligence is just as important as IQ and aptitude- a study involving 213 EI programs including over 200,000 K-12 students resulted in an increase of 11 percentage points in academic achievement among those students, compared with their peers that did not participate in EI programs. The students which participated in SEL programs also exhibited “improved social and emotional skills and behavior.”

10.5. “Impact of Enhancing Students’ Social and Emotional Learning: Meta-Analysis”

Study conducted over 213 EI programs including 200,000 K-12 students; results showed an increase of 11 percentage points in academic achievement among those students.


12.“Emotional Intelligence: Implications for Success”

This source discusses different models of emotional intelligence and their different uses in the workplace and in personal life. In addition, the article details different ways emotional intelligence is measured.

13.“Mining the Mind”

This source discusses the concept of “emotional extraction”: meaning the transfer of emotional resources from one group to the other. This concept is applied to different relationships such as gender, race, and age.

14.“Emotional Intelligence + Job Performance” (2006)

This source offers a link between task performance, organizational citizenship, and emotional intelligence, concluding that a high emotional intelligence leads to more effective job performance- however, it admits that some studies show mixed results.

15.“From Emotional to Ecological Intelligence” (2010)

This article describes how students teamed up with experts to form a group called “Rethinkers: Kids Rethink New Orleans Schools” that aims to change policy regarding the New Orleans education system, finding a link between the emotional intelligence of those students and their ecological intelligence.

16.“RULER- Yale Center of Emotional Intelligence”

RULER is “an evidence-based approach for integrating social and emotional learning into schools, developed at the Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence.” It aims to apply hard science and soft skills- supporting the implications of emotional intelligence with statistics. The RULER program (recognizing, understanding, labeling, expressing, regulating emotion) is meant to develop emotional intelligence in children and adults.

17.“Using Social and Emotional Learning to Foster Acadamic Acheivement in Secondary Mathematics” (2009)

.“Teaching social-emotional skills to secondary students has been linked to higher student achievement, more positive student motivation and more socially acceptable classroom behaviors.” This source goes on to provide educators with a three step plan for implementing emotional intelligence in their classroom.

18.“How to Integrate Emotional Intelligence into the Classroom”

This source is a continuation of another article, which includes quotes from a team of experts that advise teachers on how to integrate EI curriculum into the classroom.

19.“IES Expands Research in Social Emotional Learning”

“Social and emotional learning (SEL) is a key ingredient of high-quality education care, is important for both educators and children, and has been associated with children’s concurrent and later academic and social success.” The Institution of Education Sciences details how it offered grants to Yale’s Ruler program.

20.“Social and Emotional Intelligence Training will Save Lives” 2018

This article advocates for emotional training for teachers and students instead of equipping teachers with gun training- not only would this save lives as teachers are emotionally prepared to spot unstable characteristics in students, but students themselves would be better emotionally prepared for their future.

21.“Social Emotional Learning at Minneapolis Public Schools”

“A growing body of research suggests SEL skills are crucial for academic and life success. Students and teachers with strong SEL skills are able to work collaboratively and respectfully in diverse settings. Social and emotional learning helps teachers, administrators and parents create safe, positive and supportive learning environments for all students. Effective social and emotional learning programming promotes and improves students attitudes about themselves, their classmates and their education.”


“July 12, 2017 Source:University of British Columbia. Summary:Social and emotional learning programs for youth not only immediately improve mental health, social skills, and learning outcomes but also continue to benefit children years later.”


“Programs that teach students how to recognize their emotions, solve problems, and form healthy relationships may continue to show positive benefits for students months, or even years, after they complete them, a new meta-analysis finds.

Students who completed social-emotional learning interventions fared better than their peers who didn’t participate on a variety of indicators—including academic performance, social skills, and avoiding negative behaviors like drug use, finds the analysis, which examined follow-up data from dozens of published studies on specific interventions.”


Resource 24 is an article by Ted-ed, arguing that Emotional intelligence or skills should rank just as high as Math, science, or reading in schools. The article discusses the importance of emotional intelligence in the work place and how emotional skills like persistence are becoming more desirable in a machine based work force. how children have been taught to hide their emotions for too long, and  has a passage on how to properly teach emotional intelligence.


“This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL)
programs involving 270,034 kindergarten through high school students. Compared to controls, SEL participants
demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance that
reflected an 11-percentile-point gain in achievement. School teaching staff successfully conducted SEL programs. The
use of four recommended practices for developing skills and the presence of implementation problems moderated
program outcomes. The findings add to the growing empirical evidence regarding the positive impact of SEL programs.
Policymakers, educators, and the public can contribute to healthy development of children by supporting the
incorporation of evidence-based SEL programming into standard educational practice.”


“pioneering school leaders of today are strongly focused on a missing piece of American education: how
to support the social and emotional development of their students. Educators know that social and emotional
development improves student behavior, classroom management, school climate, and even student health.
They also know that social and emotional learning improves grades and standardized test scores, boosts
graduation rates and postsecondary completion rates, and leads to better employment outcomes. Given
these measurable benefits, there is great urgency to integrate social and emotional learning frameworks.”


“In order to help practitioners bring more of these benefits to more students, in 2010 CASEL, in partnership with NoVo Foundation, launched a large scale action research project that sought to address the next-generation questions. Can large urban school districts put into place the policies and practices that would promote the social and emotional competencies
of all students throughout the district? If so, how? And what outcomes would we see for kids?”


“Second Step Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) gives students the tools to excel in and out of the classroom. Our easy-to-teach program garners outstanding reviews from educators who’ve noticed schoolwide improvement and see even the most challenging students make progress in emotion management, situational awareness, and academic achievement.”


“Social Emotional Learning (SEL) encourages the healthy development of self, relationships, and community.  Our K-12 program guides our students toward a greater sense of self and self-regulation to build healthy relationships, and provides opportunities for each student to use these skills to positively affect the school community.
The St. Andrew’s SEL program is based on the understanding that the best learning emerges from supportive peer-to-peer and teacher-to-student relationships.”



“Social and emotional learning programs for youth not only immediately improve mental health, social skills, and learning outcomes but also continue to benefit children years later, according to new research from UBC, University of Illinois at Chicago and Loyola University.”


“Current research in education, psychology, and related fields is accumulating
to show the benefits of Social Emotional Learning (SEL) programs for children
as young as preschoolers. Public awareness is catching up to the research. In a time of budget cuts, intense societal pressures on youth, and national
testing standards, the strain on educational funds to fulfill the diverse needs
of our children is becoming increasingly apparent. This calls for innovative
approaches to addressing the academic, social, psychological, and physical
health needs of developing students. Because of its wide ranging impact,
emotional intelligence prevention and intervention programming may be the
key investment that secures a positive future for our children.”

33.“The Intelligence of Emotional Intelligence”

“Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). We discuss (a) whether intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct, and (b) the abilities and mechanisms that may underlie emotional intelligence”

34.“Emotional Intelligence Meets Traditional Standards to qualify as a valid Intelligence”

“An intelligence must meet several standard criteria before it can be considered scientifically legitimate. First, it should be capable of being operationalized as a set of abilities. Second, it should meet certain correlational criteria: the abilities defined by the intelligence should form a related set (i.e., be intercorrelated), and be related to pre-existing intelligences, while also showing some unique variance. Third, the abilities of the intelligence should develop with age and experience. In two studies, adults (N=503) and adolescents (N=229) took a new, 12-subscale ability test of emotional intelligence: the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS). The present studies show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS, meets the above three classical criteria of a standard intelligence.”

35.Practical Uses of Emotional Intelligence : Nursing Education”

“In this paper we argue that much of what is described within curriculum documentation is little more than rhetoric when the surface is scratched. Further, we propose that some educationalists and practitioners have embraced the concept of emotional intelligence uncritically, and without fully grasping the entirety of its meaning and application. We attempt to make explicit the manner in which emotional intelligence can be more realistically and appropriately integrated into the profession and conclude by suggesting a model of transformatory learning for nurse education.”

36.“Applying Emotional Intelligence”

“This paper describes a collaborative action research project in one primary school that arose from a mutual interest in applying the concept of “Emotional Intelligence”. It involves an exploratory qualitative study of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum.

This is an approach aimed at promoting emotional competence in children and young people. The PATHS curriculum was chosen because of its clear conceptualisation of emotion, its emphasis upon cognitive and developmental aspects and its research history. One class of 9 and 10 year olds took part in the project.

Target children were selected from within this group for closer monitoring. The outcomes suggest that PATHS was rated very positively by class teachers, pupils and other staff involved in the project. Positive emotional, social and behavioural changes at a class and individual level were attributed to the effects of PATHS. Finally, the importance of developing a positive school ethos was highlighted as promoting these effects.”

37.“Practical Uses of Emotional Intelligence: Medical Training”

“Among the competencies needed by leaders, emotional intelligence (EI) – defined as the ability to understand and manage oneself and to understand others and manage relationships – has been shown to differentiate between great and average leaders. In this context, teaching EI as part of the medical training curriculum is recommended. Furthermore, because physicians’ developmental needs evolve over the course of prolonged training, specific components of EI (e.g., teambuilding, empathy, and negotiation) should be taught at various phases of medical training.”

38.“Importance of Emotional Intelligence in High School Education”

“The following article discusses the importance of incorporating a focus on emotional intelligence, which can be increased, into higher education. It delineates potential personal, social, and societal consequences of so doing and as well as possible effects it could have on the university milieu. Finally, it discusses avenues via which such a focus could be incorporated.”

39.“Global Impact: Influence of EL Education on Malaysian Primary School Students”

“The need to incorporate the notion of emotional literacy into such programs is discussed and results from the analysis of the influence that emotional literacy has on problem behaviours in Malaysian secondary school students are presented. Results indicated that emotional literacy, measured in terms of emotional intelligence, was linked to internalising and externalising problem behaviours.”

40.“Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Effective Leadership”

“The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to ascertain if there was empirical evidence to support the inclusion of emotional intelligence as a component of effective leadership. It is proposed in this paper that emotional intelligence is a component of transformative leadership that should be evaluated and developed. In order to conduct the study, precise, composite definitions of emotional intelligence and effective leadership were drawn from the respective literature.”

41.“Emotional Intelligence in the K-12 Curriculum”

“The purpose of this article is to review the content of existing social— emotional learning programs in the American K-12 curriculum and the relationship between the school-based programs and the needs of the American workplace. Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs were examined for their content and compared to research on critical emotional intelligence skills for the workplace.”

42.“How Emotional Intelligence Affects Important Aspects of Life”

Below is the link to a sample of a book about the science behind emotional intelligence. The author describes Emotional Intelligence, how it came about, and presents studies to support their claim. The author then describes how Emotional Intelligence can be used in many different situations such as stress and toxic work environments.

43.“Development, Testing and Evaluation of Emotional Intelligence Curriculum”

44.“Emotional Intelligence in the Classroom”

Below is a sample of a guide book that gives examples and uses of emotional intelligence. Not only does this guide give uses for emotional intelligence in different settings, but provides examples of exercises teachers could use in their classrooms to teach emotional intelligence.

45.“Practical Uses of Emotional Intelligence: Teacher Training”

“In this article, the emerging discourse of emotional intelligence is discussed in relation to mentoring in pre‐service teacher education. Possible reasons for the neglect of emotion and affect in pre‐service teacher education, and in education more broadly, are discussed. The emerging focus on emotion in these fields is also examined in light of existing policy critiques. The dangers and pitfalls of using an emotional lens to look at the activity of mentoring are identified. The article focuses on policy and practice in relation to mentoring in pre‐service teacher education in Britain, although the issues it raises are pertinent in the wider international field.”

46.“Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Teamwork”

“In this paper it is argued that the degree of emotional competence demonstrated by members of a team will determine whether member interactions build cohesiveness and high performance. The study presented examines the relationship between the average score of team members on thirteen emotional intelligence (EI) competencies, and ratings of team cohesiveness and performance in 18 teams in an Executive MBA program. Results showed EI competencies of influence, empathy, and achievement orientation were positively related to student and faculty ratings of team cohesiveness. Empathy was positively related to student and faculty ratings of team performance, and achievement orientation was positively related to student ratings of team performance. Implications are discussed.”

47.“Emotional Intelligence for Education Transition”

“This study aims to explore (1) whether pupils with high emotional intelligence (EI) cope better with the transition to high school; and (2) whether the introduction of an intervention program to support the development of EI competencies can increase EI and self‐worth, and so ease the negative effects of transition. Results suggest that pupils with high to average levels of EI cope better with transition in terms of grade point average, self‐worth, school attendance and behaviour than pupils with low EI. In addition, pupils with low baseline EI scores responded positively to the intervention program, although a negative change was noted in pupils with high baseline emotional intelligence. Results are considered in terms of implications for educational practice.”

48.“Emotional Intelligence + Online Learning”

“As students increasingly opt for online classes, it becomes more important for administrators to predict levels of potential academic success. This study examined several factors to characterize successful online college students, including emotional intelligence (EI), persistence, personality, age, gender and previous online experience among students attending community college. Factor analysis revealed two profiles labeled ‘EI’ and ‘Persuasive’. EI was positively correlated with GPA and resilience. Males had significantly higher EI than females.”

49.“Emotional Intelligence Linked to Better Behavior”

“This paper reports on the first test of the value of an online curriculum in social intelligence (SI). Built from current social and cognitive neuroscience research findings, the 50 session SI program was administered, with facilitation in Spanish by classroom instructors, to 207 students from Universidad Rey Juan Carlos in Madrid as part of their undergraduate classes.”

50.“Applying Emotional Intelligence”

“The emphasis of the book is applied, in that it provides and contrasts concrete examples of what we do in our interventions in a wide variety of situations. The chapters present descriptions of programs, including specific activities and exercises that influence emotional knowledge and social effectiveness more generally. While practical in its focus, this book also discusses the theoretical bases for these approaches.”

51.“Emotional Intelligence + Business Education”

“This paper highlights the importance of EI and demonstrates the recognized need for well-developed EI levels in the workplace, and in particular for accountants. It outlines recent research studying emotional intelligence in relation to university students, and concludes with a call for university educators to integrate EI skills in their courses.”

52.“Implementing EI Programs in Organizations”

“Some may still scoff at the apparent “softness” of the concept of emotional intelligence. But, way back before the term had entered the popular vocabulary, American Express Financial Advisors benefited from recognizing the role of emotional intelligence in business success.”

53.“Teaching Emotional Intelligence + Link to Suicide”

“There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that getting back to the Golden Rule through the use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) strategies may be a worthwhile investment in promoting an academically solid, bully-free learning environment. “