Top Citations

Results of Deploying an Emotional Intelligence Program in K-12 Schools

Principals are more ready than ever to bring SEL to their schools.

1.“EI in the K-12 Curriculum and its Relationship to American Workplace Needs” (2007)

2.“Educator’s Guide to Emotional Intelligence” (2006) by Maurice J. Elias, Harriet Arnold; includes references and benefits of EI education

A handbook for teachers on how EL works and how it can help their students. This handbook also has recommendations for integrating EL into the classroom.

3.“Example of Canadian EI Program: Roots of Empathy”

The research page for the Roots of Empathy project: An EL program in Canada that has been researched and tested since 2000.


4.”EI and Social/Academic Adaptation to School” 2006, Spain

5.“How to Implement SEL at Your School: 7 Activities”

6.“EI and Social Skills in Science Classes” (2001)

According to research conducted by Western Illinois University and published in the Journal of Elementary Science Education, the problems facing students are their lack of emotional intelligence and social skills training necessary in order to successfully cooperate with others. The solution involves implementing EI programs and social skills instruction for students.

7. Academic Performance Increases 11% in K-12 from Emotional Intelligence Education “Emotional Intelligence is Important, Too” (2016)

Emotional intelligence is just as important as IQ and aptitude- a study involving 213 EI programs including over 200,000 K-12 students resulted in an increase of 11 percentage points in academic achievement among those students, compared with their peers that did not participate in EI programs. The students which participated in SEL programs also exhibited “improved social and emotional skills and behavior.”

7.5. “Impact of Enhancing Students’ Social and Emotional Learning: Meta-Analysis”

Study conducted over 213 EI programs including 200,000 K-12 students; results showed an increase of 11 percentage points in academic achievement among those students.

8.“RULER- Yale Center of Emotional Intelligence”

RULER is “an evidence-based approach for integrating social and emotional learning into schools, developed at the Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence.” It aims to apply hard science and soft skills- supporting the implications of emotional intelligence with statistics. The RULER program (recognizing, understanding, labeling, expressing, regulating emotion) is meant to develop emotional intelligence in children and adults.

9.IES Expands Research in Social Emotional Learning”

“Social and emotional learning (SEL) is a key ingredient of high-quality education care, is important for both educators and children, and has been associated with children’s concurrent and later academic and social success.” The Institution of Education Sciences details how it offered grants to Yale’s Ruler program.

10.“Social and Emotional Intelligence Training will Save Lives” 2018

This article advocates for emotional training for teachers and students instead of equipping teachers with gun training- not only would this save lives as teachers are emotionally prepared to spot unstable characteristics in students, but students themselves would be better emotionally prepared for their future.

11.“Social Emotional Learning at Minneapolis Public Schools”

“A growing body of research suggests SEL skills are crucial for academic and life success. Students and teachers with strong SEL skills are able to work collaboratively and respectfully in diverse settings. Social and emotional learning helps teachers, administrators and parents create safe, positive and supportive learning environments for all students. Effective social and emotional learning programming promotes and improves students attitudes about themselves, their classmates and their education.”


“July 12, 2017 Source:University of British Columbia. Summary:Social and emotional learning programs for youth not only immediately improve mental health, social skills, and learning outcomes but also continue to benefit children years later.”


“Programs that teach students how to recognize their emotions, solve problems, and form healthy relationships may continue to show positive benefits for students months, or even years, after they complete them, a new meta-analysis finds.

Students who completed social-emotional learning interventions fared better than their peers who didn’t participate on a variety of indicators—including academic performance, social skills, and avoiding negative behaviors like drug use, finds the analysis, which examined follow-up data from dozens of published studies on specific interventions.”


Resource 24 is an article by Ted-ed, arguing that Emotional intelligence or skills should rank just as high as Math, science, or reading in schools. The article discusses the importance of emotional intelligence in the work place and how emotional skills like persistence are becoming more desirable in a machine based work force. how children have been taught to hide their emotions for too long, and  has a passage on how to properly teach emotional intelligence.


“This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL)
programs involving 270,034 kindergarten through high school students. Compared to controls, SEL participants
demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance that
reflected an 11-percentile-point gain in achievement. School teaching staff successfully conducted SEL programs. The
use of four recommended practices for developing skills and the presence of implementation problems moderated
program outcomes. The findings add to the growing empirical evidence regarding the positive impact of SEL programs.
Policymakers, educators, and the public can contribute to healthy development of children by supporting the
incorporation of evidence-based SEL programming into standard educational practice.”


“Social Emotional Learning (SEL) encourages the healthy development of self, relationships, and community.  Our K-12 program guides our students toward a greater sense of self and self-regulation to build healthy relationships, and provides opportunities for each student to use these skills to positively affect the school community.
The St. Andrew’s SEL program is based on the understanding that the best learning emerges from supportive peer-to-peer and teacher-to-student relationships.”


“Social and emotional learning programs for youth not only immediately improve mental health, social skills, and learning outcomes but also continue to benefit children years later, according to new research from UBC, University of Illinois at Chicago and Loyola University.”


“Current research in education, psychology, and related fields is accumulating
to show the benefits of Social Emotional Learning (SEL) programs for children
as young as preschoolers. Public awareness is catching up to the research. In a time of budget cuts, intense societal pressures on youth, and national
testing standards, the strain on educational funds to fulfill the diverse needs
of our children is becoming increasingly apparent. This calls for innovative
approaches to addressing the academic, social, psychological, and physical
health needs of developing students. Because of its wide ranging impact,
emotional intelligence prevention and intervention programming may be the
key investment that secures a positive future for our children.”

19.“The Intelligence of Emotional Intelligence”

“Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). We discuss (a) whether intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct, and (b) the abilities and mechanisms that may underlie emotional intelligence”

20.“Emotional Intelligence Meets Traditional Standards to qualify as a valid Intelligence”

“An intelligence must meet several standard criteria before it can be considered scientifically legitimate. First, it should be capable of being operationalized as a set of abilities. Second, it should meet certain correlational criteria: the abilities defined by the intelligence should form a related set (i.e., be intercorrelated), and be related to pre-existing intelligences, while also showing some unique variance. Third, the abilities of the intelligence should develop with age and experience. In two studies, adults (N=503) and adolescents (N=229) took a new, 12-subscale ability test of emotional intelligence: the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS). The present studies show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS, meets the above three classical criteria of a standard intelligence.”

21.“Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Effective Leadership”

“The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to ascertain if there was empirical evidence to support the inclusion of emotional intelligence as a component of effective leadership. It is proposed in this paper that emotional intelligence is a component of transformative leadership that should be evaluated and developed. In order to conduct the study, precise, composite definitions of emotional intelligence and effective leadership were drawn from the respective literature.”

22.“How Emotional Intelligence Affects Important Aspects of Life”

Below is the link to a sample of a book about the science behind emotional intelligence. The author describes Emotional Intelligence, how it came about, and presents studies to support their claim. The author then describes how Emotional Intelligence can be used in many different situations such as stress and toxic work environments.

23.“Development, Testing and Evaluation of Emotional Intelligence Curriculum”

24.“Emotional Intelligence in the Classroom”

Below is a sample of a guide book that gives examples and uses of emotional intelligence. Not only does this guide give uses for emotional intelligence in different settings, but provides examples of exercises teachers could use in their classrooms to teach emotional intelligence.

25.“Emotional Intelligence + Online Learning”

“As students increasingly opt for online classes, it becomes more important for administrators to predict levels of potential academic success. This study examined several factors to characterize successful online college students, including emotional intelligence (EI), persistence, personality, age, gender and previous online experience among students attending community college. Factor analysis revealed two profiles labeled ‘EI’ and ‘Persuasive’. EI was positively correlated with GPA and resilience. Males had significantly higher EI than females.”

26.“Emotional Intelligence + Business Education”

“This paper highlights the importance of EI and demonstrates the recognized need for well-developed EI levels in the workplace, and in particular for accountants. It outlines recent research studying emotional intelligence in relation to university students, and concludes with a call for university educators to integrate EI skills in their courses.”

27.“Teaching Emotional Intelligence + Link to Suicide”

“There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that getting back to the Golden Rule through the use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) strategies may be a worthwhile investment in promoting an academically solid, bully-free learning environment. “